German

Motorcycle Innovations

History of the Motor Cycle, Germany, 1880s-1890s

Innovations on bicycles.
1899, volume 311 (pp. 154-158)

Most of the motor bicycles built up to now, in addition to the lack of complicated equipment and the associated extensive structure, are also associated with a heaviness of the external appearance and the real weight. In addition, handling is difficult and the facilities often fail.

The motor tricycle built by Heinle and Wegelin in Augsburg (DRP No. 90950, System Rüb ) tries to reduce the weight by the fact that the petrol tank and the motor replace the upper and the lower frame tubes, making the tubes unnecessary at these points. There are no pedals here, just footrests, so that this bicycle can only be moved by the engine. As a preference it is said that the engine only performs about one quarter of the number of revolutions of other motorcycles, which make 1500 to 2000 revolutions per minute, and consequently has less wear.

The whole construction of this motorcycle is very simple, so that it can be handled with the greatest security. It is therefore also suitable for all purposes and for any terrain, since it can be used by one or two people, and by using a trailer wagon it can also carry three or four people. Occupied by two people, the bike climbs gradients of up to 20%, with four people climbing gradients of 6%. The speed can be regulated between 8 and 35 km per hour. You start with the small gear ratio and switch on during the trip, depending on your needs, two higher gear ratios. The lowest corresponds to 8 km, the middle 18 km, the high 35 km an hour. The various ratios are switched on and off by means of friction clutches. In order to bring the machine to a temporary standstill, you only have to lock a valve on the petrol tank. The piston then acts instantaneously through air compression. This machine is also suitable for transporting goods because of the power of the motor, which with 1½ h.p. and works in four gears, allowing 10 to 12 hundredweights to be easily drawn.

The horizontal position of the 6 litre petrol tank ensures good, even evaporation of the petrol, while with upright boilers the petrol surface is too small and, after little consumption, it recedes too far from the intake opening, which is why the petrol gas is heavier than the air is, not gas, but only air is sucked in, and ignition can no longer take place.

On this petrol tank c ( Figs. 72 and 73 ) there is an easy-to-use arrangement for the driver of the gas mixing space, from which the ignitable gases are supplied to the cylinder. They are then ignited by an electrical spark emitted by a magnetic inductor. The explosion in the cylinder caused by the ignition of the gases, which is provided with cooling fins, acts on the piston and thus on the crank with the flywheel, from where the force is transmitted to the clutch gearbox. This transmission contains the three speeds already mentioned, which are operated by two levers running along the petrol tank. In addition, the arrangement of the coupling is such that the gear of the engine is extremely smooth, and therefore no jerks are felt when moving off or while driving.

The peculiarly designed engine a has two pistons in a row. The connected cylinders a 1 a 2, which are also located one behind the other, are designed at the top and bottom so that the whole serves as a replacement for the lower frame tube, while the petrol tank c replaces the upper frame tube.

In addition to the gas mixing chamber, there is an oil tank for lubrication on the front of the petrol tank, the filling of which is sufficient for a journey of at least 500 km. From this container, the oil is forcibly fed evenly to the cylinders by a special device. The gasoline in the tank is sufficient for about 150 km, so that the consumption is calculated at about ½ Pf. per kilometer per person.

To start up this vehicle, all you have to do is find the right gas mixture and start the engine with a removable crank. If the motor is driven, all you have to do is insert the drive lever and the wheel starts to move. The braking devices work just as safely and at the moment.

Fig. 72 shows the arrangement of the engine and its accessories in a two- and three-wheeler, Fig. 73 in a two-wheeler tandem, Fig. 74 shows the longitudinal section through the motor, while Fig. 75 shows an embodiment with a rear seat as it is used as a three-wheeler would come. 76 shows the same vehicle with a tandem seat located behind the saddle. If the bike is to be used to transport more than two people, a trailer (Fig. 77) is connected to it. Find in the same if the tricycle with the one in Fig. 75 mentioned back seat comes into use, comfortably seats four people. If you provide this motorcycle and trailer with a protective roof in the manner of a Kremser, you can easily convert it into an amusement vehicle.

Attempts have been made to test the performance of the engine by connecting two luggage tricycles with a platform behind the trailer. There were two people on the tricycle, two on the trailer and nine people on the platform, a total of 13 people, the weight of which was about 800 kg. In addition, the weight of all vehicles comes to 250 kg, so that the engine moved a total of 1050 kg.

Instead of petrol, a product specially manufactured for motor vehicles has recently been launched under the name "Stellin" . The same should have the advantage that it heats the engine less than gasoline and leaves no residue. The engine should therefore work significantly more regularly, and the combustion products should be barely perceptible through the sense of smell. It should also be noted that the Stellin is said to have been more extensive than gasoline.

The motorcycle of the Société Gladiator is also designed as a tricycle, but differs from the usual shape in that two front wheels are arranged instead of one (Fig. 78 and 79). Between the latter, the petroleum engine and the electric battery a are mounted. The crank of the engine is enclosed in an oil housing b . The latter consists of two parts which are connected by bolts c with which the cylinder provided with the vent valve d is inserted into the groove e 1 . The latter is provided with cooling fins, which means that water cooling is eliminated. The petroleum tank eis located below the upper frame tube, and the time required for evaporation heating of oil occurs from the cylinder through the pipe f obtained by the Hahn g with h can be connected.

Above this reservoir e is i sucked air; the latter strokes in the direction of the arrow over the surface of the petroleum, saturates there with petroleum gases and moves through channel k into the tube n. The supply of these petroleum gases is regulated by the valve lm ; the latter are mixed with air in n , the correct quantity of which is regulated by valve o . This | 156 | ignitable mixture is now supplied to the engine and by one of the electric battery a and induction coil a 1 produced by dipping p 1hardly ignited p .

This ignition is regulated by the contact q , and takes place every time a second radius is made by the thumb disk r . The shaft of the motor transmits its power through the chain transmission 1234 to the rear wheel, the drive of which can still be supported by the chain cranks s by the chain transmission tt 1 . For this purpose, the hub ring gear t 1 is provided with a toothed disc u and balls v , so that it is now in engagement with the rear wheel when using the pedal cranks. If the bike is to be moved using the pedal cranks alone, a valve can be used at w 1 the compression in the cylinder is released.

The two front wheels are controlled by the handlebar using the xyz linkage . The speed, as well as the decommissioning of the engine is operated by a contact q 1 on the handlebar.

Revue de Mécanique describes an oil engine from Baines and Norris. The same is built in one, two and four cylinders, so that it can be used on any vehicle. The way it works is as follows:

Both cylinders have only one evaporator c (FIGS. 80 to 83), which is warmed by the exhaust gases from cylinders aa 1 and is maintained at the correct temperature by lamp i, which heats the ignition tubes f . Each of these cylinders goes in four stroke, so that during the | one carries out its working stroke, the other draws in. The air is fed into the evaporator through the tube h , while the inflow of petroleum, which is regulated within the annular space i 1 by the height of the tube k , takes place through the tube n. The first is done by means of the needle pqwhen the levers c 1 vwtr, which are subject to the regulator, decrease, are regulated. The supply of the explosive mixture now happens through the self-acting valves e and the escape of the exhaust gases through the inevitable valves z. 84 and 85 show the engine with two cylinders mounted on the rear wheel of a tricycle. The oil tanks b 2 for the engine and b 3 for the lamp are located on the upper frame tube . The pump c 2 is used for filling . FIGS. 86 to 88 show the two-cylinder type on a motor vehicle, while in FIG. 89a single-cylinder type for lighter wagons, such as that shown in FIG. 90 , can be seen.

In the Dunton electric tricycle , the batteries and electric motor are located on either side of the front wheel. The latter transmits its power directly to the front wheel using a gear transmission. As shown in Fig. 91 , the whole mechanism is housed in boxes which are attached to the front fork perpendicular to the axle. The switch for driving forwards and backwards is located on the steering lever; it can be set to three speeds, namely 6, 12 and 18 km per hour, and when reversing to 8 km. The filling of the accumulators costs about 1 M. 20 Pf. And is enough for about 60 km. Charles T. Child describes in Scientific American of November 26, 1898 the detailed manufacture of a vehicle powered by electric motors, the details of which will not be discussed here. Like | 157 | Fig. 92 to 94 show, the frame consists of two interconnected women's bicycle frames, the connection of which is made by soldering a tube b to the two control sleeves aa 1 , while a tube b 1 , which is internally threaded at both ends is provided, is held by means of the seat clamp screws cc 1 .

The hubs of the pedal crank bearings are connected by a strong tube b 2 that passes through them and is fastened at its ends with screws. Struts r are also provided for further securing . The rear wheel forks connect a -shaped tube b 3 , the upper horizontal ends of which carry two electric motors mm , while the part d, which bears the battery s , is supported on the part bent downwards (FIGS . 93 and 94). The steering device consists of half a steering rod, which are connected to each other by means of a rod h, whereby both front wheels are controlled simultaneously.

The saddle is equipped with a back and side rest, a footrest f is provided for further convenience of the driver , with a front fender e, and a tool pocket t connected to the rear end .

In order to secure the 0.6 h.p. motors ( Fig. 95 ), which are completely enclosed in a housing for protection against external influences, against vibrations, they are rotatably mounted on the tube b 3, and by means of steel rods u, which each are provided with a spiral spring, suspended from the connecting tube b 1.

The motors are driven on the rear wheels by... Instead of the usual small sprocket, there is a larger diameter gearwheel in which a small gearwheel connected to the motor axis engages. This vehicle has a speed of about 20 km per hour, its battery charge lasts for about 32 km.

A motorcycle powered by acetylene gas has been exhibited at the Imperial Institute in London by engineer Ralph Lucas . The inventor claims that 1 pound of calcium carbide develops enough power to drive 50 miles. The gas is transferred from the generator after passing through an atmospheric condenser consisting of a spiral tube to a simple gas machine which drives the rear wheel by means of a chain. The whole mechanism is very small. In order to be able to use this vehicle for foot operation, pedals are provided that transfer their power to the rear wheel independently of the engine using a special chain.

  • Neuerungen an Fahrrädern. Article is under the Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license, images under Creative Commons by-nc-nd 3.0

Notes
Verkehrszentrum Deutsches Museum, Munich, has displayed a Heinle & Wegelin tricycle.