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History of the Triumph Motorcycle Company
Triumph have been producing motorcycles since 1902. They are, perhaps,
the most famous of all British firms and the only major one that is still
in production, albeit under a different master and in a new home.
1900 Company founded.
1902 The first machine was produced in Coventry. Similar to most others,
the Minerva engine hung from
the bicycle frame downtube with belt drive.
1905 They were now using their own 3hp engine, mounted vertically in the
1906 Became a private company.
1906 They brought in the rocking front-fork.
1907-1914 The company kept to one model, steadily developing it, and enlarged
the engine to 3½hp.
Stanley Show 1910 The Triumph Cycle Co., Ltd.
Coventry. Stand No. 79.
The power unit of the Triumph motor-bicycle will be the same as last year, namely, 85-88 mm. bore and stroke, rated at 34 single-cylinder, with by compression. The magneto, which is placed in front, is chain-driven, the chain being enclosed in an oil-tight aluminium case. The magneto is well protected by a wide and strong mud flap. Between the crank case and the magneto is placed a very efficient silencer, which is provided with a patent cut-out no arranged that a downward push both opens and closes it.
The Triumph patent carburetter has handle-bar control, and is sensible and economical. Ball bearings are retained on the engine main shaft. Spring tappets are now employed which not only relieve the hammering of the valves but keep the valve gearing taut when running idle in the cycle of operations.
Lubrication is effected by means of an inclined pump concealed in the forward part of the tank.
A refinement has been introduced by the fitting of gauze strainers to both oil and petrol-caps. The well-known 'Triumph spring forks will be retained, as well as the registered design variable pulley. The free engine model Triumph will be a replica of the standard machine, but, of course, with the addition of the free engine clutch. This is a plate clutch located in the rear wheel. For the past two years it has been extensively used, and had proved itself very satisfactory. It adds only 10 lbs. to the weight and allows the machine to be started from rest.
The Tourist Trophy model is deprived of pedalling gear, and consequently a shorter wheel base is employed. This machine has already demonstrated its capacity for speed and reliability, as an instance of which in the last Tourist Trophy race of the eight Triumphs which started all finished, and, in fact, were, the first eight single-cylinder machines to pass the finishing post.
1912 Spennell's lists them at Priory st, Coventry (Tel. 542) and as manufacturers
1914 The engine was enlarged again - this time to 4hp, and listed with
various transmissions. Although it was well-known, the model was very dated.
The 225cc Junior arrived, with a two-stroke engine, two speed and
1915 The 550cc model H was introduced, with chain-driven Sturmey-Archer
gearbox, but still keeping the belt final-drive. Some 30,000 machines went
to the services and performed well.
1920 After the end of the Great War, the company continued with the H
and the Junior, and added the all-chain-drive SD.
1922 Saw the introduction of the famous 499cc Ricardo model with
four overhead-valves in the cylinder head. This machine soon became known
as the 'Riccy', enjoyed some competition successes and was listed until
1923 The Junior was enlarged to 249cc and joined by the LS
model, with 346cc engine, gear primary-drive, unit construction of its
three-speed gearbox and Druid forks
with a drum front brake. In the same year they also began to produce cars.
1925 Trade was slow so the company introduced their low-cost 493cc model
to undercut their rivals, and set up to produce 20,000 machines.
1927 The range was up to eight models, the largest of which was 279cc to
keep under a tax limit weight.
1928 The range was cut when the Super Seven car was introduced.
1929 They were back to eight models and all but one was updated with the
fitment of a saddle tank. This helped to improve the style and set them
up for the coming decade.
1930's Motorcycle business sold. Renamed Trimuph Engineering Co.
1930 The Depression bit hard and the company searched for buyers so they
introduced a 174cc two-stroke with two-speed gearbox built in-unit, and
a six-model range of singles - all with upright engines and three speeds.
1931 A 249cc ohv single with inclined engine and dry-sump lubrication joined
the range. Some machines had the right side enclosed by a panel.
1932 The inclined trend continued, and all but one of the four-strokes
were so-styled. The two-stroke was reduced to 148cc to suit a tax classification.
Competition models were added, with high-level exhausts, and later in the
year, two further machines appeared - listed as Silent Scouts -
based on existing models with engine changes to reduce noise.
1933 The two-stroke was replaced by a neat 148cc ohv single - the first
offered under the Gloria label.
In July, came the announcement of a machine with a 747cc vertical-twin
engine, designed by Val Page
(previously of Ariel).
1934 An even longer list appeared for that year, with a series of machines
with new vertical engines designed by Page. These were simple, straightforward,
easy to make and maintain, but somewhat lacking in style. A road-racing
493cc model was added and the firm ran three in the TT, but all retired.
1935 The range was slimmed down to a range of new singles and a twin, and
all the older models went.
1936 The company's two components became separate companies. Triumph
always struggled to make a profit from cars, and after going bankrupt in
1939, was acquired by the Standard. The motorcycle operations fared better,
having been acquired in 1936 by John Sangster, who also owned the rival Ariel
That same year, the company began its first exports to the United States,
which quickly grew into the company's single most important market. Sangster's
formed the Triumph Engineering Co Ltd largely led by ex-Ariel employees,
including Edward Turner who designed the 500cc 5T Speedtwin - released
in September 1937, and the basis for all Triumph's until the 1990s.
In 1939 the 500 cc T100 Tiger, capable of 100 mph, was released,
and then the war began.
WW2 Motorcycles were produced at Coventry until World War II. The town
of Coventry was virtually destroyed in The Blitz (September 7, 1940 to
May, 1941). Tooling and machinery was recovered from the site of the devastation
and production restarted at the new plant at Meriden, West Midlands in
1942. One of Triumph's wartime products is of particular interest: portable
generators for the RAF, using 500cc Triumph engines with alloy barrels.
The Speed Twin designed by Edward Turner before the war was produced
in large numbers after the war. Efforts to settle the lend-lease debts
caused nearly 70% of Triumph's post war production to be shipped
to the United States. Post War, the Speed Twin and Tiger 100
were available with a sprung rear hub, Triumph's first attempt at
a rear suspension.
Privateers put wartime surplus alloy barrels on their Tiger 100
racers, and won races, inspiring the TriumphGP model. By
1950 the supply of barrels was exhausted, and the GP model was dropped.
The American market applied considerable pressure to reverse this backward
step, and a die cast close finned alloy barrel was made available. The
alloy head made the valve noise more obvious, so ramp type cams were introduced
for alloy head models to reduce the clatter.
1948 Another motorcycle based on the wartime generator engine was the 499cc
Trophy Twin, also introduced at the 1948 Motor Cycle Show. It used
a single carburettor, low compression version of the Grand Prix engine.
Britain won the prestigious 1948 International Six Days Trial. The Triumph
works team had finished unpenalised. One team member, Allan Jefferies,
had been riding what amounted to a prototype version.
To satisfy the American appetite for motorcycles suited to long distance
riding, Turner built a 650 cc version of the Speed Twin design.
The new bike was named the Thunderbird (A name Triumph would later
license to the Ford Motor Company for use on a car). Only one year after
the Thunderbird was introduced a hot rodder in Southern California
mated the 650 Thunderbird with a twin carb head originally intended
for GP racing and named the new creation the Wonderbird. That 650
cc motor, designed in 1939, held the world's absolute speed record for
motorcycles from 1955 until 1970.
1951 The Triumph motorcycle concern was sold to their rivals BSA
by Sangster in 1951. This sale included Sangster becoming a member of the
board. Sangster was to rise to the position of Chairman of the BSA
Group in 1956.
The production 650cc Thunderbird was a low compression tourer, and
the 500cc Tiger 100 was the performance bike. That changed in 1954,
with the change to swing arm frames, and the release of the alloy head
650cc Tiger 110, eclipsing the 500cc Tiger 100 as the performance
1959 The T120, a tuned double carburettor version of the T110,
came to be called the Bonneville. As Triumph and other marques
gained market share, Harley-Davidson
became aware that their 1 litre-plus bikes were not as sporty as the modern
rider would like, resulting in a shrinking share of the market. The Triumphs
were models for a new, "small" Harley-Davidson as a result: the now-fabled
Sportster, which started out as Harley's version of a TriumphBonneville. With its anachronistic V-twin, the Sportster
was no match for the Bonneville, but it proved a solid competitor
in US sales and eventually also in longevity.
In the 1960s, despite internal opposition from those who felt that it would
dilute the macho image of the brand, Triumph produced two scooters;
the TriumphTina, a small and low performance 2 stroke scooter
of around 100 cc with automatic clutch and a handlebar carry basket, and
the TriumphTigress, a more powerful scooter available with
either a 175cc 2 stroke single or a 250cc 4 stroke twin engine for the
1961 The Triumph Engineering Co was a subsidiary of BSA
with HQ at Meriden Works, Allesley, Coventry. Manufacturers of Triumph
motorcycles and Tigress scooters. Employs 1,400 persons.
1962 The last year of the "pre-unit" models, Triumph used a frame
with twin front downtubes, but returned to a traditional Triumph
single front downtube for the unit construction models that followed.
1963 All Triumph engines were of unit construction.
In 1969 Malcolm Uphill, riding a Bonneville, won the Isle of Man
Production TT with a race average of 99.99 mph (160.9 km/h) per lap, and
recorded the first ever over 100 mph (160 km/h) lap by a production motorcycle
100.37 mph (161.52 km/h). For many Triumph fans, the 1969 Bonneville
was the best Triumph ever.
When the BSA group collapsed under its
debts, government help led to a merger with the Manganese Bronze subsidiary
The three remaining brands to be produced by the company were combined
to create the new group name of Norton-Villiers-Triumph
(NVT). However, this restructuring would result in a number of closures
and redundancies. Without warning, in September 1973 NVT Group chairman
Denis Poore announced the closure of Meriden works effective February,
1974. Of 4,500 employees, 3,000 were made redundant. Faced with unemployment
and having their products handed over to a rival firm, the workers at the
Meriden factory demonstrated against a move to Small Heath, Birmingham,
the BSA site and staged a sit-in for two years.
As scheduled, Trident production moved to the BSA factory in Small Heath
in 1974, but as BSA used non-craft labour in manufacturing, quality fell
dramatically. In October 1974 the Labour Government announced the formation
of the Meriden Cooperative under Tony Benn, with a loan of £5million
pounds - on the condition that NVT retained ownership of the name, and
continued the sales and marketing of the machines. The cooperative resumed
production in March 1975, but dropped production of the lightweight T120,
to concentrate on the 750cc twin machines, the Bonneville and the
Tiger, primarily for the USA market. The cooperative needed additional
cash, and agreed a deal with Lord Weinstock's GEC company to sell 2,000
Bonnevilles for £1,000,000 together with consultation on setting
up a sales force.
In 1983 Triumph went into receivership. John Bloor, a 53-year-old
plasterer turned wealthy English property developer and builder, who had
little interest in motorcycles, had for some time wanted to start up a
manufacturing business. Bloor became interested in Triumph, and
particularly its still highly regarded brand name. Bloor bought the name
and manufacturing rights from the Official Receiver. Enfield India lost,
bidding £55,000 pounds to the Official Receiver. A new company
Motorcycles Ltd (initially Bonneville Coventry Ltd), was formed.
In 1988 Bloor funded the building of a new factory in Hinckley, Leicestershire.
Bloor put between £70m and £100m into the company between purchase
of the brand and break even in 2000.