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Polish Motorcycles

Sokol Motorcycles


Motocicletas Sokol (Polonia)

Sokol, que significa “Halcón” en polaco, fue una marca de motocicletas producidas en Varsovia entre 1929 y 1939 bajo la dirección del ingeniero Zygmunt Okolów. Originalmente fabricadas por CWS (Talleres Automotrices Centrales), fueron luego producidas por PZInz (Instituto Nacional de Ingeniería) que había tomado el control de CWS.

El nombre fue utilizado en primer lugar para la Sokol 600 RT, pero más a menudo se asocia con la Sokol 1000, una máquina imponente construida en 1932 para el ejército polaco, también conocido bajo los nombres de CWS 1000 y M111. Contexto histórico

En 1918 Polonia se independizó después de casi 150 años de dominio alemán-austriaco-ruso. En los tres años siguientes debieron custodiar las fronteras pero los invasores no habían dejado industrias y todo estaba destruido por la Gran Guerra. Polonia era un país capitalista libre en ese momento y pronto aparecieron las primeras fábricas privadas. En el caso de las motos, algunas partes más complejas se tuvieron que importar (por ejemplo los componentes eléctricos eran en su mayoría de la Bosch de Alemania), pero más tarde todas las piezas fueron polacas. Los proyectos eran originales, comparables a las motocicletas occidentales, confiables pero mucho más baratas. Desafortunadamente la Segunda Guerra Mundial detuvo el rápido desarrollo de la industria de la moto polaca. En 1927 el ejército polaco había dado las especificaciones para una motocicleta destinada a uso general para reemplazar a las Harley-Davidson que usaban hasta ese momento. En 1928 CWS prepara una pequeña serie de 200 máquinas llamada CWS M55 equipadas con sidecar. Aunque copiada casi por completo de las americanas (el cuadro y la horquilla eran de Harley mientras que el motor era una copia de la Indian), resultaron poco confiables. Por lo tanto, se decidió en 1931 desarrollar una nueva máquina. Con la ayuda del Estado, PZInz reanudó los planes para el M55 y se hicieron cambios profundos. La moto debía ser confiable, resistente a las malas condiciones del terreno, la falta de mantenimiento y fácil de usar. Todo esto resultó en el modelo CWS M111, una máquina pesada incluso para su clase. Sin embargo, demostró ser extremadamente confiable. Pero esta calidad tenía su precio y la versión civil costaba unos u$d 800 en 1939, un precio apenas inferior al de un automóvil mediano del mismo periodo.

La producción comenzó en 1933 y continuó hasta el comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en 1939. Todas las piezas fueron producidas en Polonia, sólo el 5% fueron importados. Sokol mantiene el nivel de calidad hasta el final de la producción entregando todas sus motos testeadas tanto en ruta como en off road. Así lograron su fama de durabilidad y resultaron ser mucho más rápidas fuera de la carretera que su similar estadounidense.

Un modelo Sokol 200 (M411) fue puesto en producción justo antes de la guerra, pero muy pocos fueron construidos. Después de la guerra sólo se produjo entre 1947 -1950 un modelo ligero, el Sokol 125 basado (como muchas otras marcas) en la alemana DKW RT 125.

Sokol 1000 (CWS M111)

Construida desde 1933 hasta septiembre de 1939 cuando los nazis destruyen o toman todas las fábricas de Polonia. Diseñada para uso militar, también fue usada por el correo y debido a su precio fue poco vendida entre los clientes particulares. En 1936, luego que es presentado el modelo Sokol 600 RT, el nombre M111 fue cambiado a Sokol 1000.

Una de las innovaciones más notables fue el montaje flexible del sidecar que permitía un uso más fácil y una mayor velocidad off-road. El arranque en frío a 40 °C bajo cero era facilitado por válvulas especiales las cuales, a través de un inyector podrían enviar el combustible directamente a los cilindros. Otra característica era que el puño del acelerador estaba en el lado izquierdo lo que permitía que el piloto fuera capaz de tomar el arma mientras conducía, puesto que esta moto era utilizada principalmente por el Ejército. La producción exacta no se conoce pero hasta 1939 el Ejercito Polaco probablemente tenía unas 1600 unidades.

Especificaciones:

Motor: cuatro tiempos bicilíndrico en V a 45°, válvulas laterales, cilindrada 995,4 cc. (diámetro x carrera de 83 mm x 92 mm).
Relación de compresión 5:1, 18 HP@ 3000 rev/min, Potencia max 20/22 HP@ 4000 revs.
Carburador: Zenith MC 22.
Cuadro: cerrado doble cuna
Suspensión delantera springer, trasera rígida.
Transmisión primaria por engranajes, secundaria a cadena
Embrague: húmedo de seis discos de cobre-asbestos operado por un pedal al pie izquierdo.
Caja de velocidades de tres marchas con mando al tanque
Velocidad máxima aproximada 100 km/h
Peso: 270 Kg solo, 375 Kg con sidecar
Consumo de combustible: 7-7,5 l/100 km
Consumo de aceite: 0,3 l/100 Km

El Sokol M111 sirvió de base para el prototipo Sokol M121, una motocicleta en la que la rueda del sidecar era conducida por un diferencial. El motor también fue utilizado para una vagoneta de tren.

Sokol 600 RT (CWS M211)

En 1932 se crea una división de motocicletas independiente de la oficina de construcción de PZIn. Su líder era Tadeusz Rudawski, un talentoso ingeniero y piloto deportivo, quien reemplazó a Zygmunt Okolów en el desarrollo de las motocicletas CWS. Su primera tarea fue la de construir una moto universal, tanto para uso civil y militar, que tuviera un precio accesible. La producción en masa de este modelo, CWS 600 RT (R por Rudawski y T por Turismo) se inició en 1936. La moto fue denominada "Sokol". El cuadro y la suspensión eran similares a la británica Ariel, pero el motor era un diseño original de Rudawski. Fue la mejor moto construida por PZIn hasta ese momento, confiable, fácil de manejar y su precio era aceptable para los clientes particulares. Hasta septiembre de 1939 se construyeron unas 4.000 unidades.

En 1935 el equipo de Rudawski también trabajó en una versión deportiva 500 RS (M311) con válvulas a la cabeza del que solo se hicieron unos pocos ejemplares.

Especificaciones:

Motor: monocilindrico, cuatro tiempos, válvulas laterales, refrigerado por aire
Cilindrada: 579 cm ³ (diámetro x carrera) 83 mm x 106 mm
Relación de compresión: 4.75 a 1
Potencia máxima 16 HP a 3800 RPM
Carburador: Amal hasta el modelo 1938, luego Graetzin H26
Caja de cambios: de tres velocidades, con función de bloqueo
Embrague: húmedo de 5 discos
Transmisión: a cadena
Cuadro; cuna de tubo de acero
Horquilla: trapezoidal con amortiguadores de fricción
Ruedas: de rayos, reemplazables de 3 x 19
Capacidad del depósito: 15 litros
Sistema eléctrico: 6 V, Magneto y dinamo Miller MC1, luego Bosch tipo B142B
Distancia entre ejes: 1430 mm
Longitud total: 2160 mm
Ancho total: 780 mm
Despeje : 145 mm
Altura del asiento desde el suelo: 720 mm
Peso: 170 Kg
Consumo de combustible: 4 l/ 100 km
Consumo de aceite: 0,1 l / 100 km
Velocidad máxima: solo 110 km/h, con sidecar 90 km/h


Sokol (Polish for "Falcon") motorcycles were built in Warsaw between 1929 and 1939 under the direction of engineer Zygmunt Okolów. Originally manufactured by CWS (Central Automotive Workshops), they were then produced by PZInz (National Institute of Engineering) that had taken control of CWS.

The name Sokol name was first used for the 600 RT single, but is most often associated with the Sokol 1000, an imposing machine built in 1932 for the Polish army. This machine was also known under the names CWS 1000 and M111.

  • In 1918 Poland became independent after almost 150 years of German-Austrian-Russian rule. The country was in ruins after the Great War - nothing was spared, all industry had been destroyed. War had not ceased for Poland - it spent the next three years battling the Russians who saw Poland as a path to the west for their communist revolution. The Poles had experienced a brief but chaotic form of democracy followed, in the mid-1920s, by a form of socialism (agrarianism) involving considerable wealth distribution. The country did not exactly thrive, but it progressed.

    The first private factories appeared. In the case of motorcycles, some components were imported (for example the electrics were mostly by Bosch), but later all parts were Polish. The projects were original, comparable to western motorcycles, and reliable - but much cheaper.

    World War II brought an abrupt halt to the rapid development of the Polish motorcycle industry when the country was invaded by the Russians from one side and the Germans from the other. The Poles fought valiantly, but their cavalry was no match for Soviet tanks.

In 1927 the Polish army had given the specifications for a motorcycle destined for general use to replace the Harley-Davidsons that they used until that moment. In 1928 CWS prepared a small series of 200 machines called CWS M55 equipped with sidecar. Although copied almost entirely from the American ones (the frame and fork were from Harley while the engine was a copy of the Indian), they proved unreliable. Therefore, it was decided in 1931 to develop a new machine. With the help of the State, PZInz resumed plans for the M55 and profound changes were made. The bike should be reliable, resistant to poor ground conditions, lack of maintenance and easy to use. All this resulted in the CWS M111 model, a heavy machine even for its class. However, it proved to be extremely reliable. But this quality had its price and the civil version cost the equivalent of about US$800 in 1939, a price barely lower than a mid-sized car in the same period.

Production began in 1933 and continued until the beginning of World War II in 1939. Most of the parts were produced in Poland, with only 5% imported. Sokol maintained the level of quality until the end of production, delivering all of its motorcycles tested both on the road and off road. Thus they achieved their reputation for durability. These remarkable machines proved much faster off the road than their American counterparts.

A Sokol 200 model (M411) was put into production just before the war, but very few were built. Post-war, between 1947 and 1950, only a lightwight model was produced. The Sokol 125 was based (as with many other brands) on the German DKW RT 125.

Sokol 1000 (CWS M111)

Built from 1933 until September 1939 when the Nazis destroyed or occupied all the factories in Poland, this machine was designed for military use and was also used by the postal service. It was also sold in small numbers to the public. In 1936, after the Sokol 600 RT model was introduced, the name M111 was changed to Sokol 1000.

One of the most notable innovations was the flexible mounting of the sidecar that allowed for easier use and greater off-road performance. The cold start at 40 ° C below zero was facilitated by special valves which, through an injector, could send the fuel directly to the cylinders. Another feature was that the throttle grip was on the left side which allowed the rider to use a weapon while travelling, since this motorcycle was used mainly by the military. The exact production is not known but until 1939 the Polish Army probably had about 1600 units.

Specifications

  • Engine: four-stroke two-cylinder V-45 °, side valves, displacement 995.4 cc. (diameter x stroke of 83 mm x 92 mm). Compression ratio 5: 1, 18 HP @ 3000 RPM, Max power 20/22 HP @ 4000 revs.
    Carburetor: Zenith MC 22.
    Frame: closed double crib
    Sprung front suspension, rigid rear.
    Primary transmission by gears, secondary to chain
    Clutch: wet-plate six copper-asbestos discs operated by a foot pedal on the left foot.
    Three-speed gearbox with gear shift on tank
    Approximate max speed 100 km / h
    Weight: 270 Kg alone, 375 Kg with sidecar
    Fuel consumption: 7-7.5 l / 100 km
    Oil consumption: 0.3 l / 100 km

The Sokol M 111 served as the basis for the prototype Sokol M121, a which had the sidecar wheel driven by a cardan shaft. The engine from this motorcycle was also used for a railcar.

Sokol 600 RT (CWS M211)

In 1932 a separate motorcycle division was created from the PZIn construction office. Headed by Tadeusz Rudawski, a talented engineer and sports driver, who replaced Zygmunt Okolów in the development of CWS motorcycles. His first task was to build a universal motorcycle, both for civil and military use, with an affordable price. The mass production of this model, CWS 600 RT (R by Rudawski and T by Turismo) began in 1936. The motorcycle was named "Sokol" before that name was adopted for the marque. The frame and suspension were similar to the British Ariel, but the engine was an original Rudawski design. It was the best bike built by PZIn until then, reliable, easy to handle and its price was acceptable for private customers. By September 1939 some 4,000 units had been produced. In 1935 Rudawski's team also worked on a sports version 500 RS (M311) with overhead valves of which only a few were made.

Specifications

  • Engine: single cylinder sidevalve four stroke, air cooled
    Displacement: 579 cc, bore x stroke = 83 mm x 106 mm
    Compression ratio: 4.75 to 1
    Maximum power 16 HP at 3800 RPM
    Carburetor: Amal up to model 1938, then Graetzin H26
    Gearbox: three-speed, with lock function
    Clutch: 5 plate, wet
    Transmission: final drive by chain
    Frame: steel tube cradle
    Fork: trapezoidal with friction damping
    Wheels: spoked, with 3 x 19" tyres
    Tank capacity: 15 litres
    Electrical system: 6 V, Magneto and dynamo Miller MC1, later Bosch type B142B
    Wheelbase: 1430 mm
    Length: 2160 mm
    Width: 780 mm
    Ground clearance: 145 mm
    Seat height: 720 mm
    Weight: 170 Kg
    Fuel consumption: 4 l / 100 km
    Oil consumption: 0.1 l / 100 km
    Maximum speed: solo 110 km / h, with sidecar 90 km / h

Sources: Sergio Scalerandi

See also CWS Motorcycles


Mon Sep 22 2008
rstec at wsn.pl
Rafal Stec
Sokol 1000 M111
I am looking for any Sokol or CWS M111 parts or complete motorcycles It's very expensive in Poland it's not a Indian it was made in poland in 1936-1939 I can pay min 15 000 EURO for the motorcycles in bad condition anyone with any information please email me .I will give you a best price , I am not a dealer,
Please contact at phone +48602725783 in Poland or email
Tarnow


Mon Aug 25 2008
seyffert.aubstadt at t-online.de
Sokol 1000
Sokol 1000
Wir haben eine Sokol 1000 (Baujahr 1934). Komplett restauriert. Suchen Interessenten und Liebhaber.
Bad Neustadt - Deutschland


Tue Feb 12 2008
maulh at keysafetyinc dot com
unknown Sidecar
Sokol?? Sidecar
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,
I've purchased a M72 Motorbike with a unknown sidecar attached.
Now I'm searching for Information regarding the Maker and the Model of this Sidecar.
I'm highly interested in any information e.g. pictures similar Sidecars and informations to the weight ant the possible max loading of the sidecar.

Thanks a lot in advance for your help
Frankfurt, Germany


Fri Jul 13 2007
david at david-henry.net
Sokol Left Handed Gas
Sokol 1000
Hello,
I like your origin of the left handed gas control. However I heard another one which is more entertaining. The Sokol was modeled on the Indian which was used by many police forces. They needed left handed gas to be able to fire a gun with the right hand when chasing bad guys!
PS I have a Sokol, the only one in Israel! Its under restoration and I'll send a picture soon.
Israel


Tue Jan 17 2006
Peter4465 at web.de
Sokol 1000 von 1935
Zu Verkaufen Sokol 1000 mit Seitenwagen. Restauriert. Originalzustand.


Here are photos of CWS M111 Sokol 1000, the left and right side.  -- Marek Kowalski dwusuw at polbox dot com

See See gallery


Hi my name is John I am looking for any Sokol parts or complete motorcycles anyone with any information please email me i am willing to drive anywhere in the united states or Poland to pick up parts or bikes, I am not a dealer, I have cash or trade please call me in Colorado at (970)523-0101 mornings or night -- john krzysztofiak -- johnsjunk at frontier.net


Hello
I'm looking for a Sokol 1000 or with its other name CWS111. It was produced in former Poland until 1938. In the beginning of the war they closed down the factory. Have you got information on this bike or some contacts where to ask for plans etc.
I'm looking for one with sidecar.
Thanks for your help.
Cheers -- Peter Junger JungerP at logica dot com


I was contacting lots of people via the web and I found also some web pages. Some are in polish, but they have at least a few pictures.

Have a look, but it is good possible that you have to try it several times because their server might be down from time to time.

http://tytan.umcs.lublin.pl/users/pchmiel/polmot.htm [404]

Cheers Peter JungerP at logica dot com


Thank you very much for your help. Meanwhile I was contacting lots of people via the web and I found also some web pages. Some are in polish, but they have at least a few pictures.
Have a look, but it is good possible that you have to try it several times because their server migth be down from time to time.
Cheers, Peter -- JungerP at logica dot com



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