Werner Motorcycles


Werner Motors

Werner produced motorcycles from 1897 to 1908. In 1898 they trademarked the term "motocyclette", and they built, and had patented, the cradle frame engine location that most motorcycles now use, in 1901.

The brothers Werner, Michel and Eugene, were of French nationality but of Russian extraction, having left their native land to exercise free speech in journalism. They began experimenting with motor bicycles in 1896 using a horizontal type De Dion-Bouton engine (or more likely a Labitte). This machine was a failure but, by 1897, they had developed a machine with the engine mount at the steering head of a bicycle driving the front wheel via a belt rim, with hot tube ignition, which sometimes caused the machine to burst into flames, especially on windy days. This was overcome by using the new high tension coil, battery and platinum point ignition. Thus they had a saleable product and set up a workshop in Paris to manufacture these machines throughout Europe. Here at last was something the working man could afford at a price of 45 Guineas and, even in those days, hire purchase was possible. [1]

The Werner of 1899 was a purpose-built motor bicycle of 216cc, and had a strengthened frame with special strengthened forks to accept the Werner Freres own engines. It employed a surface carburettor, which consisted of a separate sealed tank within the fuel tank into which fuel was allowed in by a screw down valve on the top of the carburettor. Its level was indicated by a float and wire, which gave one the level of fuel within the surface carburettor. Usually one kept the level at half full, one was also mindful keeping the float controls closed when not in use. Fuel was of 0.680 specific gravity and a pipe led from the surface carburettor to the induction pipe and thence to the automatic inlet valve of the engine. The automatic inlet valve had a weak spring that could be compressed between light pressure of the thumb and forefinger and had an opening of 5/32 of an inch for best results. Air was supplied by means of a twist grip air valve on the left side of the handlebar, indeed the whole handlebar was fixed to the engine via the sealed steering head and air passed through the left handlebar twist grip.

Ignition was via battery and coil to an open contact breaker whose current passed through a removable handlebar plug and a right side twist grip. There was an exhaust valve lifter, two brake levers and an advance and retard lever; there was no throttle and speed was regulated by the right twist grip cutting the current and the air control twist grip. Atmospheric conditions also upset the mixture as did road surfaces. The light weight, smooth operation of its belt drive, and relative economy of the Werner did much to establish the motorcycle as a practical method of travel, although its high centre of gravity made it prone to side slip, especially in wet weather.

During the Edwardian years they were the first, or one of the first, to build a vertical-twin engine, so their influence was widespread.

How it evolved

  • On 22 August 1893, the brothers Michel and Eugene founded Werner Freres et Cie to sell typewriters, duplicators, and similar machines and, by August 1894, were selling, from their shop at 85 rue de Richelieu, Paris, Edison Phonographs, claiming to be the only French agents. They saw a Kinetoscope in September, and in October opened the first French Kinetoscope parlour at 20 Boulevard Poissonniere, showing an Annabelle dance, The Cockfight, A Bar Room Scene, Blacksmith's Shop and The Barbershop.

    That same month they dissolved their original company, and Michel and the brothers' father Alexis and a financier, a lady named Adrienne Charbonnel, formed a new company; Le Kinetoscope Edison, Michel et Alexis Werner, to concentrate on the new machine, and later Michel and banker Henry Iselin formed another company to exploit the Kinetoscope throughout France. It was probably at 6-8 place de l'Opera (where the Werners had a shop) that Antoine Lumiere saw the Kinetoscope, and set his sons the task of making a moving picture machine. The Werners were also involved with a Kinetoscope company set up in Brussels, Belgium, and in June 1895 set up a fictitious company to exploit the Edison Kinetophone. There is considerable evidence that they were soon attempting to break away from the Edison product. On 18 June 1895, Eugene patented a 'kinetoscope' - basically the Edison machine but with a cylindrical shutter replacing the disc shutter. It is also possible that they obtained a camera from Charles Chinnock in America. The Kinetoscope/Kinetophone ventures were not financially successful, and soon failed. The following year, the Werners patented a number of film devices, and produced several different camera/projectors.

    In 1899, the Werners left the film business and set up a factory to produce cycles and motor cars. [1]

Locations

Werner had several business addresses over the years, including:


  • 85 Rue Richelieu à Paris et 18 Rue Greffulhe in Levallois-Perret (c.1898)
    6-8 place de l'Opera, Paris (c1893-95)
    Ateliers rue Gide in Levallois (1899)
    10 bis Avenue de la Grande Armée, Paris
    40 Avenue de la Grande Armée, Paris (1898)
    225-227 rue du Vieux Ponts de Sevre à Billancourt (c.1910)

See also Werner Motorcycles

La motocyclette Werner. Cet appareil u’est autre qu’une bicyclette à moteur à pétrole, présentant ceci de particulier que le moteur agît sur la roue d’avant tandis que le cycliste continue à pouvoir donner la propulsion par la roue arrière.

Comme on le voit sur la figure 51, le moteur est peu volumineux. Il est fixé au guidon et transmet son mouvement à la roue avant par l’intermédiaire d’une courroie entraînant une poulie à gorge que l’on fixe sur la roue à l’extérieur de la fourche. Le moteur lui-même, qui est du type ordinaire à quatre temps, de dimensions très restreintes, ne pèse que 10 kilos, poids auquel il 'faut y ajouter 4 kilos pour le carburateur et les accessoires. Il développe 3/4 de cheval, en tournant à 1.200 tours à la minute.

L’allumage se fait par tube incandescent ou par étincelle électrique. Le brûleur très réduit est enfermé dans une petite lanterne. Le carburateur se compose d’un réservoir en cuivre nickelé qui suit le tube horizontal du cadre. Il contient deux litres et demi d’essence, quantité suffisante pour faire 100 kilomètres.

La manœuvre du moteur est commandée au moyen d’une manette placée sur le guidon.

Il est bien certain que ce dispositif présente à première vue un aspect des plus séduisants, mais l’expérience a vite désabusé les plus enthousiastes partisans de ce système qui présente malheureusement de très sérieux défauts. Nous ne pouvons admettre les affirmations des constructeurs sur bien des points, car, en réalité leur motocycle est un instrument assez dangereux en raison de son manque de stabilité. Tout le poids se trouvant reporté sur le guidon, il en résulte que la direction est alourdie et rendue plus difficile. Le centre de gravité étant très haut, les dérapages sont fréquents dès que le sol est gras ou même simplement humide et le moteur manquant un peu de force l'ascension des côtes raides est plutôt difficile à moins de pédaler.


The Werner motorcycle. This device is other than a petroleum-powered bicycle, having this particularity that the motor acts on the front wheel while the cyclist continues to be able to give propulsion by the rear wheel.

As seen in Figure 51, the motor is small in size. It is attached to the handlebars and transmits its movement to the front wheel via a belt driving a grooved pulley that is fixed on the wheel on the outside of the fork. The engine itself, which is of the ordinary four-stroke type, of very restricted dimensions, weighs only 10 kilos, weight to which it is necessary to add 4 kilos for the carburetor and accessories. It develops 3/4 horsepower rotating at 1,200 revolutions per minute.

Ignition is by incandescent tube or by spark electric. The very small burner is enclosed in a small lantern. The carburettor consists of a tank in nickel-plated copper that follows the horizontal tube of the frame. He contains two and a half liters of gasoline, sufficient quantity to travel 100 km.

The operation of the motor is controlled by means of a lever placed on the handlebar.

It is quite certain that this device presents at first view a most attractive aspect, but the experience quickly disillusioned the most enthusiastic supporters of this system who Unfortunately, it has very serious flaws. We don't can accept the claims of the manufacturers on many points, because in reality their motorcycle is a rather dangerous instrument due to its lack of stability. All the weight being transferred to the handlebars, it...

The result is that the steering is made heavier and more difficult. The center of gravity being very high, skids are frequent as soon as the ground is greasy or even simply wet and the engine lacks a little strength during the ascent. steep hills is rather difficult unless you pedal.
Source: Graffigny Chapter VI Motobicyclettes

Report from the 1903 Stanley Show

Werner Motors, Ltd, will exhibit their new models for 1904 at the Stanley Show, Stand No. 121. Their exhibit is always looked forward to with special interest, as having been engaged in the trade from its very commencement, they are responsible for the introduction of many of the leading features now adopted in the generality of motorcycles. Originality has always been a remarkable feature in their productions, and this year 12 distinct improvements will be introduced, several of which are of a very important character.

Two types of machines will be marketed of 2.5 and 3.25 h.p. respectively. The engines are of an entirely new design, and are fitted with large fly-wheels and a new style of carburetter which is automatic in action and gives remarkable results. An entirely new device for providing a free engine will be a conspicuous feature of these machines, and a special arrangement of the engine pulley will render the possibility of belt slip very remote. The frame of the machine is longer than in last year's patterns, and the front forks are stayed on the girder principle. Special attention has been paid to the brakes and a new system for the one on the back wheel will be shown. The new silencer is of larger dimensions and of different internal construction in order to give maximum efficiency with the higher powered engines.

As soon as protection is completed, we shall illustrate and describe in detail the 1904 Werner specialities, which indicate that no effort is being spared to keep this well-known make in the prominent position it has so long occupied. Visitors to the Agricultural Hall will find plenty to interest them at the stand where Werner motor-bicycles will be exhibited.

The Motor magazine, 18th November 1903

Notes
1. An English sales brochure c.1898 states the price in Paris as £36.0.0 and that orders should be accompanied by cheque. There is no mention of hire purchase.

Sources: Bourdache, Graces Guide


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